Instead, this cell line has been widely used to measure extrinsic ADE properties [2]

July 8, 2022 By spierarchitectur Off

Instead, this cell line has been widely used to measure extrinsic ADE properties [2]. of ADE in mediating severe outcomes is the fact that infants given birth to to DENV-immune mothers might develop severe dengue during a main contamination when maternally transferred dengue antibodies have waned to below protective levels [5]. In children and adults, the spectrum of the clinical manifestations of Zika computer virus (ZIKV) infection is normally much less symptomatic when compared to dengue, and there is no equivalent to severe dengue (dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome). However, ZIKV has the ability to infect embryos and fetuses inside the uterus, causing devastating pathology. The mechanisms underlying this severe end result of ZIKV contamination remain unknown, and several PF-06471553 studies have focused on investigating whether ADE might have contributed to the expanded ZIKV pathogenesis [1, 6C8]. Collectively, these studies have confirmed (in vitro and in vivo) that ADE of ZIKV contamination by dengue-specific antibodies not only facilitates viral uptake, as exhibited by our study and by others, but also modifies antiviral mechanisms, resulting in increased ZIKV replication, as interestingly explored by Hueston and colleagues [1]. Notably, these studies have used different cell types to explore intrinsic and extrinsic ADE properties. The FcRII-expressing K562 cell line does not produce type I interferon (IFN) and, thus, is not suitable for studying intrinsic ADE, as correctly pointed out by Hueston and colleagues [1]. Instead, this cell line has been widely used to measure extrinsic ADE properties [2]. We acknowledge that measuring the production of inflammatory mediatorsas suggested by Hueston et alwould be very informative. In fact, we observed no differences in interleukin 6 (IL-6) production between K562 cells infected with ZIKV in the absence of antibodies or in the presence of a panel of sera with different dengue immune profile (monotypic and multitypic) (Figure 1). In contrast, Hueston et al demonstrated increased IL-6 levels on human macrophages infected with ZIKV preincubated with dengue-immune sera [1]. These dissimilar findings probably reflect variations on the production of inflammatory mediators among different cell types under ADE conditions [2]. Of note, both PF-06471553 experiments were based on a single short time point after infection (24 and 48 hours postinfection for Hueston et al and our experimental system, respectively); thus, a complete time course experiment after infection would probably represent a better picture of K562 cell inflammatory responses. However, investigating intrinsic ADE and expression of different cytokines was beyond the scope of our manuscript. Open in a separate PF-06471553 window Figure 1. Antibody-dependent enhancement of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection by dengue virus (DENV)Cspecific antibodies and levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6). FcRII-expressing K562 cells were infected with ZIKV PE/243 in the absence of antibodies or in the presence of a panel of serum samples from pregnant women with different dengue immune status, as determined by plaque reduction neutralization test: monotypic (DENV-3) (n = 10) and multitypic (DENV-3 and DENV-4) (n = 10). Cell culture supernatants were collected 48 hours postinfection, and levels of IL-6 were determined by Citometric bead array (BD CBA Human Th1/Th2/Th17 Cytokine Kit) following the manufacturers instructions. Mann-Whitney test was used to determine statistical significance. Statistical analysis was performed using Graph Pad Prism software, version 7.0a. It is notable that considerable progress has been made in a short amount of time toward understanding the role of ADE of ZIKV infection by dengue antibodies. However, it remains necessary to determine the relevance of the ADE mechanism in the epidemiological context [9, 10], particularly by analyzing how previous dengue immunity affects virus transmission and the development of congenital ZIKV syndrome. Studies addressing this issue will have important implications for ZIKV and DENV vaccine development. Notes This work was supported by the Brazilian Federal Agency for Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education; Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh; Fogarty Training Program Mouse monoclonal to BID (grant number D43TW006592 Pitt GIDRTP/ 323 NIH to P. M. S. C.); National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (grant number 482915/2010C2 MCT/CNPq-321 14/2010); Strategic Program to Support Health Research/PAPES VI (grant number 322 407697/2012C8); and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (grant number U19 AI56541). All authors: No reported conflicts of interest. All authors have submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of PF-06471553 Interest. Conflicts that the editors consider relevant to the content of the manuscript have been disclosed..