The Effects of Cr6+ and Se on the Spleen Organ Index of Broiler With the aim of judging the protective performance of Se against Cr6+-triggered injury to the broiler spleen, we measured the spleen organ index (Figure 1)July 31, 2022
The Effects of Cr6+ and Se on the Spleen Organ Index of Broiler With the aim of judging the protective performance of Se against Cr6+-triggered injury to the broiler spleen, we measured the spleen organ index (Figure 1). conducted to investigate the molecular mechanisms of selenium (Se) antagonism of hexavalent chromium (Cr6+)-induced toxicity. Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and selenium-enriched yeast (SeY) were used Curcumol to construct the single Cr6+ and combined Se/Cr6+ exposure broiler models, and then the broilers were randomly divided into four groups (C group, Se group, Se/Cr6+ group, and Cr6+ group). After a 42-day experiment, the spleen tissues of broilers were excised and weighted. The antagonistic mechanisms of Se and Cr6+ were evaluated using histopathological assessment, serum biochemical tests, oxidative stress kits, ELISA, qPCR, and Western blotting. Curcumol On the whole, there were no significant changes between the C and Se groups.?The spleen organ index in the Cr6+ group was significantly decreased, but SeY increased spleen organ index to a certain extent. The levels of SOD and GSH were reduced, and the MDA content was elevated by Cr6+; however, these changes were mitigated by Se/Cr6+ exposure. Importantly, Cr6+ exposure induced a series of histopathological injuries in broiler spleen tissues, while these symptoms were significantly relieved in the Se/Cr6+group. Furthermore, Cr6+ significantly Curcumol decreased the levels of T-globulin, IgA, IgM, and IgG in serum. Contrarily, dramatically more T-globulin IgA, IgM, and IgG were found in the Se/Cr6+group than in the Cr6+ group. Revealed by the results of qPCR and WB, the expressions of NF-B, IB, and p-IB were upregulated in Cr6+ groups, while?they were downregulated in Se/Cr6+ group compared to that in Cr6+ group. Besides IFN- and IL-2, the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines?were significantly increased by Cr6+ exposure, but the SeY supplement relived the expression levels mediated by Cr6+ exposure. In conclusion, our findings suggest SeY has biological activity that can protect broiler spleens from immunosuppression and inflammation induced by Cr6+, and we speculate that the NF-B signaling pathway is one of its mechanisms. below 0.05 indicates that the data were statistically significant, and the different lowercase letters on the bar graphs indicate statistical differences between the two groups. 3. Results 3.1. The Effects of Cr6+ and Se on the Spleen Organ Index of Broiler With the aim of judging the protective performance of Se against Cr6+-triggered injury to the broiler spleen, we measured the spleen organ index (Figure 1). There was no significant difference between C and Se groups. Curcumol We observed prominently falling spleen organ indexes in Se/Cr6+ and Cr6+ groups relative Curcumol to the C group. However, the Cr6+ group exhibited lower spleen organ indexes than Se/Cr6+group. These showed that Se could alleviate the damaging effect of Cr6+ on the growth performance and spleen tissues of broilers. Open in a separate window Figure 1 The effects of Cr6+ or/and Se on organ index in broiler chicken. Bars with different lowercase letter reflect evident differences ( 0.05). Data are expressed as the means SD. 3.2. The Effects of Cr6+ and Se on Oxidative Stress in Broiler Spleen Tissues The effects of Cr6+ and Se on levels of GSH, SOD, and MDA in spleen tissues are shown in Figure 2. It was unfolded that the content of GSH in the Se group significantly increased in contrast to the C group ( 0.05), and the activity of SOD in the Se group experienced no significant change. Additionally, no difference in the GSH level was uncovered between the Se/Cr6+ group and C group, and the activity of SOD showed a downward-sloping trend ( 0.05) in the corresponding groups. The levels of GSH and SOD dropped dramatically in the Cr6+ group compared with all other groups. As one of the oxidation products, MDAs content in the Se group was significantly decreased compared to the C group. The content of MDA in the Cr6+ group rose ( 0.05) relative to that in the C group. Additionally, there was no significant change between C and Se/Cr6+ groups. However, the content of MDA in the Se/Cr6+ STMN1 group was lower ( 0.05) than that in the Cr6+ group. These results suggested.