Annexin 1 (ANXA1) is crucial for maintaining the intestinal barrier during inflammatory response; it is found in exosomes released from IECs (Leoni et alFebruary 21, 2023
Annexin 1 (ANXA1) is crucial for maintaining the intestinal barrier during inflammatory response; it is found in exosomes released from IECs (Leoni et al., 2015). Tregs Chen et al. (2011) Metallothionein-2Bone marrow-derived MSCsMaintenance of intestinal barrier integrity(Liu et al. (2019) Polarization of M2b macrophagesInduction of IL-10 from macrophagesMHC I and IIIntestinal epithelial cellsInitiating immune response Van Niel et al. (2001) miR-223Mice colonic epithelial cellsModulates communication between Dimesna (BNP7787) IL-23 transmission pathway and claudin-8 in IBD development Wang et al. (2016) Modulates intestinal barrier integritymiR-23a and miR-155NeutrophilsInduces replication fork collapse Butin-Israeli et al. (2019) Inhibits homologous recombinationInduces accumulation of double strand breaksmiR-34c and PlncRNA1Intestinal epithelial cell collection Caco-2Modulates ZO-1, MAZ, and occludin expression Chen et al. (2017) Modulates intestinal barrier integritymiR-4334, miR-219 and miR-338Porcine milkPrevents LPS-induced intestinal inflammation, apoptosis and damage via inhibiting TLR4/NF-B and p53 pathways Xie et al. (2019) Mdo-miR7267C3pGingerShapes gut microbiota Teng et al. (2019) Improves barrier functionAmeliorates colitis via IL-22-dependent mechanismsMyeloperoxidase (MPO)Intestinal epithelial cellsContributes to oxidative stress against microbes Zhang et al. (2018) Myeloperoxidase (MPO)NeutrophilsDamages intestinal barrier by production of oxidative radicals, Dimesna (BNP7787) inhibiting wound closure and healing Slater et al. (2017) NEAT1Mouse intestinal mucosa and serumDown-regulation of NEAT1 Liu et al. (2018) Suppresses inflammatory response by modulating intestinal epithelial barrier and via exosome-mediated polarization of macrophages in IBDPSMA7Oral mucosal cellsResponsible for degradation of proteins Zheng et al. (2017) Controls autoimmune disorders and immune toleranceSphingosine-1-phosphateIntestinal epithelial cellsPromotes tumorigenesis(Patmanathan et al. (2017) Tetraspanin 14C3-3 protein, enolase and warmth shock proteinsHookwormProtection against colitis by Dimesna (BNP7787) significantly suppressing(Eichenberger et al. (2018) IFN, IL-6,IL-1, and IL-17a and upregulating anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10TGF-Intestinal epithelial cellsInhibit CD4+ T cell proliferation Jiang et al. (2016) Open in a separate windows Exosomes in Inflammatory Bowel Disease The role of exosomes in IBD has garnered interest among experts. Exosomal proteins, RNAs and lipids regulate factors of IBD like immune cells, gut microbiota and the mucosal barrier (Chang et al., 2020). Many studies have used exosomes from a variety of starting materials to study the process of IBD alleviation and related factors of interest. Translational studies are being conducted to tap into the possible use of exosomes as diagnostic markers and drug delivery systems, and also on the power of altered exosomes in IBD therapy (Ocansey et al., 2020). Many of the studies cited in this review do not differentiate between the different types of EVs like exosomes, endosomes and Dimesna (BNP7787) MVBs, hence for the sake of convenience we have used the general term EVs while describing study findings. Exosomal Profile in Intestinal Mucosa Epithelial cells, Paneth cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes are cells in the intestinal tract that are directly exposed to digested food, microbes, and foreign antigens making Dimesna (BNP7787) immune homeostasis a challenging and complex process (Peterson and Artis, 2014). While maintaining immune homeostasis, the intestinal barrier strikes a perfect balance by clearing pathogenic bacteria and maintaining immune tolerance with the commensals. Evidence indicates that dysregulation of intestinal homeostasis prospects to IBD pathogenesis. Intestinal homeostasis depends on effective crosstalk between extracellular factors, EVs and the hosts intestinal immune defense (comprised of the mucus membrane, intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and the immune cells) (Avila-Caldern et al., 2015). EVs take action not only as communicator between cells but also between cells and organisms (Chang et al., 2020). This is important as the mammalian intestine encounters 10 trillion (1013) microbes (10X the number of total cells in a mammalian body) (Sartor, 2008). EVs from micro-organisms and the host body communicate and help maintain a peaceful coexistence, maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis which is a major determinant of health (Sommer et al., 2017). Physiological fluids also contain EVs which impact ITPKB the intestinal microbiota. Exosomes From Intestinal Epithelial Cells IECs play a major role in immune modulation in the gut that even though they are not professional antigen presenting cells (APC), they bear major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I, II, and HLA-DM (Lin et al., 2005). The knowledge of IEC releasing EVs has been known for a while now (Van Niel et al., 2001). IEC EVs like parent cells, contain immunomodulatory molecules. They also express MHC I and II, expression of which is usually elevated during inflammation as compared to basal condition (Van Niel et al., 2001). EVs released from these cells can be released apically or basolaterally. They.