Thus, leading to enormous loss in relevant industries

March 28, 2023 By spierarchitectur Off

Thus, leading to enormous loss in relevant industries. A genome-wide survey of the gene expression profile at 2, 4, 6 and 8 days post-infection by was performed and results showed that 64, 244, 1,328, 1,887 genes were induced, respectively. Up to 124 genes, which are involved in basal metabolism pathways, were modulated. Notably, genes that play a role in juvenile hormone synthesis and metabolism pathways were induced, suggesting that the host may accumulate JH as a response to infection. Interestingly, can inhibit the silkworm serine protease cascade melanization pathway in hemolymph, which may be due to the secretion of serpins in the microsporidia. also induced up-regulation of several cellular immune factors, in which CTL11 has been suggested to be involved in both spore recognition and immune signal transduction. Microarray and real-time PCR analysis indicated the activation of silkworm Toll and JAK/STAT pathways. The notable up-regulation of antimicrobial peptides, including gloverins, lebocins and moricins, Mangiferin strongly indicated that antimicrobial peptide defense mechanisms were triggered to resist the invasive microsporidia. An analysis of and and may provide a foundation for further work on host-parasite interaction between insects and microsporidia. Introduction As a group of obligate intracellular single-cell spore-forming organisms, microsporidia can infect a variety of hosts ranging from protists to mammals. However, almost half of the reported genera of microsporidia use insects as primary hosts, and microsporidia infection usually has chronic and sublethal effects on hosts [1]. The infection by microsporidia can be disastrous to economic insects such as silkworms and honeybees, primarily due to horizontal and vertical transmission. Thus, leading to enormous loss in relevant industries. In addition, microsporidiosis, which is caused by microsporidia, has been recognized in different groups of people including patients with AIDS and cancer, organ transplant recipients, diabetics, travelers, children, Rabbit Polyclonal to Paxillin (phospho-Ser178) and the elderly [2]. Microsporidiosis is a Mangiferin threat to human health. Microsporidia have a highly specialized invasion organelle, the polar tube [3], [4]. The polar tubes of active spores can extrude and penetrate the plasma membrane of host cells and transfer infectious protoplasm into the cells followed by spore proliferation [1], [5], [6]. Polar tubes mainly consist of three polar tube proteins (PTP1, PTP2 and PTP3) that interact with each other [7]. During infection, the dense and rigid spore wall can prevent microsporidian from host attack [8]. Spore wall proteins have been reported to mediate the ejection of polar tubes by adjusting their permeability and may play an important role in the pathogenic infection process for spore adherence to cell lines [9], [10]. Recently, subtilisin-like serine proteases (SLPs), considered to be potential virulence factors, have been implicated in the polar tube extrusion process [11]. Although many studies of the infection mechanism of microsporidian have been reported, few studies have focused on elucidating the mechanism of the host response to microsporidia infection. Thus, investigation on the interplay of genome-wide expression profile of hosts and parasites is critical for understanding the mechanisms of self-protection, resistance and defense against invasive microsporidia. Microarray technology can be used to monitor gene expression profiles on a whole-genome scale using a single chip Mangiferin to assess the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously. This technique is a powerful tool for identifying genes that participate in the host response to parasite infection [12]. Recently, Rosenblum EB used microarray to reveal that had a strong physiological effect (i.e., decreased expression of a large number of cytochrome p450 family proteins and upregulation of the expression level of heat shock proteins and genes associated with cellular integrity) and weak immune response after infection with the chytrid fungus was examined [14]. In honeybee, the gut response to infection was investigated using NimbelGen HD2 tiling microarrays and demonstrated that the immune response of the bee responded to infection by increasing oxidative stress [15]. The genomic sequences for both silkworm and microsporidia are readily Mangiferin available, they are a good model system for investigating the interplay between host defense and the microsporidia [16], [17]. In addition, the accomplishment of the 23K Silkworm Genome Array also makes it more convenient to obtain a genome-wide transcriptional profile of the silkworm [18]. Subsequently, a survey using the silkworm genome-wide microarray for host response of silkworm to (can cause melanization during the early stage of infection and trigger the host immune response [19]. To investigate the.